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Coldfusion

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Coldfusion

Integrieren Sie ColdFusion ganz einfach in Ihre bestehende Continuous Integration und Continuous Delivery (CI/CD)-Pipeline, um Ihren Kunden einen. Adobe ColdFusion Anthology: The Best of The Fusion Authority (Experts Voice in Web Development) | Dinowitz, Michael, Dinowitz, Judith | ISBN. ColdFusion ist eine für webbasierte Skriptsprachen und Datenbank-​Anwendungen konzipierte Middleware. ColdFusion wurde durch Allaire entwickelt. Hilwa, Al January Casino Room No Deposit Bonus The most famous cold fusion claims were made by Stanley Pons and Martin Fleischmann in Immediate Media Company. Shanahan that propose to explain anomalous heat generated by cold fusion", E. It seems that the electrical conductivity of heavy water with lithium is considerably less than that of light Coldfusion with lithium.

However, the reduction in separation is not enough by a factor of ten to create the fusion rates claimed in the original experiment. Electron screening of the positive hydrogen nuclei by the negative electrons in the palladium lattice was suggested to the DOE commission, [] but the panel found the theoretical explanations not convincing and inconsistent with current physics theories.

Criticism of cold fusion claims generally take one of two forms: either pointing out the theoretical implausibility that fusion reactions have occurred in electrolysis setups or criticizing the excess heat measurements as being spurious, erroneous, or due to poor methodology or controls.

There are a couple of reasons why known fusion reactions are an unlikely explanation for the excess heat and associated cold fusion claims.

Because nuclei are all positively charged, they strongly repel one another. Paneth and Peters in the s already knew that palladium can absorb up to times its own volume of hydrogen gas, storing it at several thousands of times the atmospheric pressure.

This was also the belief of geologist Palmer, who convinced Steven Jones that the helium-3 occurring naturally in Earth perhaps came from fusion involving hydrogen isotopes inside catalysts like nickel and palladium.

Huizenga says they had misinterpreted the Nernst equation , leading them to believe that there was enough pressure to bring deuterons so close to each other that there would be spontaneous fusions.

Conventional deuteron fusion is a two-step process, [text 6] in which an unstable high-energy intermediary is formed:.

Experiments have observed only three decay pathways for this excited-state nucleus, with the branching ratio showing the probability that any given intermediate follows a particular pathway.

Only about one in one million of the intermediaries decay along the third pathway, making its products comparatively rare when compared to the other paths.

The known rate of the decay process together with the inter-atomic spacing in a metallic crystal makes heat transfer of the 24 MeV excess energy into the host metal lattice prior to the intermediary 's decay inexplicable in terms of conventional understandings of momentum and energy transfer, [] and even then there would be measurable levels of radiation.

Cold fusion setups utilize an input power source to ostensibly provide activation energy , a platinum group electrode , a deuterium or hydrogen source, a calorimeter , and, at times, detectors to look for byproducts such as helium or neutrons.

Critics have variously taken issue with each of these aspects and have asserted that there has not yet been a consistent reproduction of claimed cold fusion results in either energy output or byproducts.

Some cold fusion researchers who claim that they can consistently measure an excess heat effect have argued that the apparent lack of reproducibility might be attributable to a lack of quality control in the electrode metal or the amount of hydrogen or deuterium loaded in the system.

Critics have further taken issue with what they describe as mistakes or errors of interpretation that cold fusion researchers have made in calorimetry analyses and energy budgets.

In , after Fleischmann and Pons had made their claims, many research groups tried to reproduce the Fleischmann-Pons experiment, without success.

A few other research groups, however, reported successful reproductions of cold fusion during this time.

Iyengar and M. Groups that did report successes found that some of their cells were producing the effect, while other cells that were built exactly the same and used the same materials were not producing the effect.

The claims of cold fusion, however, are unusual in that even the strongest proponents of cold fusion assert that the experiments, for unknown reasons, are not consistent and reproducible at the present time.

Internal inconsistencies and lack of predictability and reproducibility remain serious concerns. The Panel recommends that the cold fusion research efforts in the area of heat production focus primarily on confirming or disproving reports of excess heat.

Some research groups initially reported that they had replicated the Fleischmann and Pons results but later retracted their reports and offered an alternative explanation for their original positive results.

The calculation of excess heat in electrochemical cells involves certain assumptions. Several researchers have described potential mechanisms by which this process could occur and thereby account for excess heat in electrolysis experiments.

Another assumption is that heat loss from the calorimeter maintains the same relationship with measured temperature as found when calibrating the calorimeter.

The ISI identified cold fusion as the scientific topic with the largest number of published papers in , of all scientific disciplines.

He tried to publish his theoretical paper "Cold Fusion: A Hypothesis" in Physical Review Letters , but the peer reviewers rejected it so harshly that he felt deeply insulted, and he resigned from the American Physical Society publisher of PRL in protest.

The number of papers sharply declined after because of two simultaneous phenomena: first, scientists abandoned the field; second, journal editors declined to review new papers.

Consequently, cold fusion fell off the ISI charts. The Journal of Fusion Technology FT established a permanent feature in for cold fusion papers, publishing over a dozen papers per year and giving a mainstream outlet for cold fusion researchers.

When editor-in-chief George H. Miley retired in , the journal stopped accepting new cold fusion papers. The decline of publications in cold fusion has been described as a "failed information epidemic".

Cold fusion reports continued to be published in a small cluster of specialized journals like Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry and Il Nuovo Cimento.

In the Indian multidisciplinary journal Current Science published a special section devoted entirely to cold fusion related papers.

In the s, the groups that continued to research cold fusion and their supporters established non-peer-reviewed periodicals such as Fusion Facts , Cold Fusion Magazine , Infinite Energy Magazine and New Energy Times to cover developments in cold fusion and other fringe claims in energy production that were ignored in other venues.

The internet has also become a major means of communication and self-publication for CF researchers. Cold fusion researchers were for many years unable to get papers accepted at scientific meetings, prompting the creation of their own conferences.

Attendees at some of the early conferences were described as offering no criticism to papers and presentations for fear of giving ammunition to external critics, [] thus allowing the proliferation of crackpots and hampering the conduct of serious science.

With the founding in of the International Society for Condensed Matter Nuclear Science ISCMNS , [] the conference was renamed the International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science [79] [83] [] — for reasons that are detailed in the subsequent research section above — but reverted to the old name in Since , the American Physical Society APS has included cold fusion sessions at their semiannual meetings, clarifying that this does not imply a softening of skepticism.

On 22—25 March , the American Chemical Society meeting included a four-day symposium in conjunction with the 20th anniversary of the announcement of cold fusion.

Researchers working at the U. Although details have not surfaced, it appears that the University of Utah forced the 23 March Fleischmann and Pons announcement to establish priority over the discovery and its patents before the joint publication with Jones.

Hagelstein , who had been sending papers to journals from 5 to 12 April. The U. At least one patent related to cold fusion has been granted by the European Patent Office.

A patent only legally prevents others from using or benefiting from one's invention. However, the general public perceives a patent as a stamp of approval, and a holder of three cold fusion patents said the patents were very valuable and had helped in getting investments.

A Michael Winner film Bullseye! The film — a comedy — concerned conmen trying to steal scientists' purported findings.

However, the film had a poor reception, described as "appallingly unfunny". In Undead Science , sociologist Bart Simon gives some examples of cold fusion in popular culture, saying that some scientists use cold fusion as a synonym for outrageous claims made with no supporting proof, [] and courses of ethics in science give it as an example of pathological science.

The plot of The Saint , a action-adventure film, parallels the story of Fleischmann and Pons, although with a different ending. Despite the secret being lost with his death at the end of the episode, it is implied that another student elsewhere is on a similar track, and may well repeat Todtman's efforts.

In the Spider-Man episode "Dr. Octopus: Armed and Dangerous," Dr. Octavius's lifelong goal was to create a cold fusion reaction in a battery, to serve as an alternate energy source to nuclear reactors.

However, his attempts to do so resulted in a catastrophic explosion, fusing the robotic tentacles he was using to perform his experiments to his spine, turning him into Dr.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the Fleischmann—Pons claims of nuclear fusion at room temperature, and subsequent research.

For the original use of the term "cold fusion", see Muon-catalyzed fusion. For all other definitions, see Cold fusion disambiguation. Not to be confused with Cold welding.

Hypothetical type of nuclear reaction. Beaudette , p. Oriani et al. This had been in the scientific literature since It seems that the electrical conductivity of heavy water with lithium is considerably less than that of light water with lithium.

And this difference is more than enough to account for the heavy water cell running hotter Langmuir , pp. It has also been applied to the number of published results, in Huizenga , pp.

Sources: " Burden on the Examiner. Durham , Patent law essentials: a concise guide 2nd, illustrated ed. Sheldon , How to write a patent application illustrated ed.

We realise that the results reported here raise more questions than they provide answers Daley calculates between and researchers, with damage to their careers.

Archived from the original on 3 November Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Van Siclen and S.

Jones, "Piezonuclear fusion in isotopic hydrogen molecules," J. G: Nucl. Bibcode : Natur. Barnes on 13 and 26 June ".

The Caltech Institute Archives. Retrieved 22 August J 29 June , "Measurement of gamma-rays from cold fusion letter by Fleischmann et al.

Archived from the original on 26 July The New York Times. Archived from the original on 19 December Retrieved 27 November Skeptical Inquirer.

Amherst, NY: Center for Inquiry. Prelas, Eric Lukosi. Popular Mechanics. Archived from the original on 18 May Retrieved 18 May Archived PDF from the original on 16 May Archived from the original on 21 January Current Science.

Archived from the original on 5 August A , Close , pp. The cell is calibrated Archived from the original on 23 December Archived from the original PDF on 31 July Retrieved 31 October Anyone can deliver a paper.

Wholly inoperative inventions; "incredible" utility" , U. Archived from the original on 13 February — via www. Another computer scientist translated an old article in the Swedish technical journal Ny Teknika.

Taubes says: " Ny Teknika seemed to believe that Tandberg had missed on the discovery of the century, done in by an ignorant patent bureau.

When Pons heard the story, he agreed. The department had had its laboratory administrators send emissaries to Washington immediately. The government laboratories had free reign [ sic ] to pursue their cold fusion research, Ianniello said, to use whatever resources they needed, and DOE would cover the expenses.

A reason that it is not as well known below this energy because the individual rates are so low. However, the rate is known at room temperature from muon catalysed fusion experiments.

There is no reason to think that these branching ratios would be measurably altered for cold fusion. Materials Characterization: D.

Confinement Pressure, which has a similar explanation. Electrochemical cold fusion is widely considered to be discredited.

Douglas 28 February Bibcode : PhLA.. The phenomenon then separates the scientists in two camps, believers and skeptics. Interest dies as only a small band of believers is able to 'produce the phenomenon' Ackermann, Eric February , "Indicators of failed information epidemics in the scientific journal literature: A publication analysis of Polywater and Cold Nuclear Fusion", Scientometrics , 66 3 : —, doi : Energy panel split over whether experiments produced power" , Nature News , doi : Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Cold Fusion.

Hagelstein, Peter L. Plan ahead to group more of the same plasma together for bigger fusions and bigger points. All Girls. All Racing. All Puzzle. All Multiplayer.

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The timeout attribute sets the maximum number of seconds that each action of a query is allowed to execute before returning an error. The volume of traffic to your web site or applications impacts the performance of your site or application.

To enhance the performance, you can cache your database queries. The results are stored when the query is first run. Whenever you run the query thereafter, ColdFusion retrieves the results from memory.

In the example below, if the query's cached data is older than 60 seconds, the query is re-run. Otherwise, the cached data is used.

Select an article: Select an article:. Applies to: ColdFusion. See also. ColdFusion release : Added the attribute returnType.

ColdFusion 9: Datasource attribute is optional now. ColdFusion 8: Added the result variable that specifies the ID of a row. Changed dot notation support: ColdFusion now supports dot notation within a record set name.

ColdFusion interprets such a name as a structure. They do not work, and might cause an error, in releases later than ColdFusion 5.

No longer supports native drivers. This tag creates a query object, providing this information in query variables:. RecordCount Number of records rows returned from the query.

ExecutionTime Cumulative time required to process the query. MySQL 3 does not support this feature. Example 1: Getting started.

Example 2: Using tables. Example 3: Using the result attribute. However, the authors later retracted that report, saying that the helium they measured was due to background from the air.

In Swedish scientist John Tandberg reported that he had fused hydrogen into helium in an electrolytic cell with palladium electrodes.

The term "cold fusion" was used as early as in an article in The New York Times about Luis Alvarez 's work on muon-catalyzed fusion. The most famous cold fusion claims were made by Stanley Pons and Martin Fleischmann in After a brief period of interest by the wider scientific community, their reports were called into question by nuclear physicists.

Pons and Fleischmann never retracted their claims, but moved their research program to France after the controversy erupted.

Martin Fleischmann of the University of Southampton and Stanley Pons of the University of Utah hypothesized that the high compression ratio and mobility of deuterium that could be achieved within palladium metal using electrolysis might result in nuclear fusion.

Current was applied continuously for many weeks, with the heavy water being renewed at intervals. These high temperature phases would last for two days or more and would repeat several times in any given experiment once they had occurred.

The calculated power leaving the cell was significantly higher than the input power during these high temperature phases. Eventually the high temperature phases would no longer occur within a particular cell.

In Fleischmann and Pons applied to the United States Department of Energy for funding towards a larger series of experiments.

Fleischmann and Pons and co-workers met with Jones and co-workers on occasion in Utah to share research and techniques.

During this time, Fleischmann and Pons described their experiments as generating considerable "excess energy", in the sense that it could not be explained by chemical reactions alone.

Jones, however, was measuring neutron flux, which was not of commercial interest. In mid-March , both research teams were ready to publish their findings, and Fleischmann and Jones had agreed to meet at an airport on 24 March to send their papers to Nature via FedEx.

Fleischmann and Pons' announcement drew wide media attention. Its discovery 30 years earlier had also been unexpected, though it was quickly replicated and explained within the existing physics framework.

The announcement of a new purported clean source of energy came at a crucial time: adults still remembered the oil crisis and the problems caused by oil dependence, anthropogenic global warming was starting to become notorious, the anti-nuclear movement was labeling nuclear power plants as dangerous and getting them closed, people had in mind the consequences of strip mining , acid rain , the greenhouse effect and the Exxon Valdez oil spill , which happened the day after the announcement.

Peterson , Fleischmann and Pons, backed by the solidity of their scientific credentials, repeatedly assured the journalists that cold fusion would solve environmental problems, and would provide a limitless inexhaustible source of clean energy, using only seawater as fuel.

Although the experimental protocol had not been published, physicists in several countries attempted, and failed, to replicate the excess heat phenomenon.

The first paper submitted to Nature reproducing excess heat, although it passed peer review, was rejected because most similar experiments were negative and there were no theories that could explain a positive result; [notes 2] [40] this paper was later accepted for publication by the journal Fusion Technology.

Nathan Lewis , professor of chemistry at the California Institute of Technology , led one of the most ambitious validation efforts, trying many variations on the experiment without success, [41] while CERN physicist Douglas R.

Morrison said that "essentially all" attempts in Western Europe had failed. Nevertheless, Fleischmann and Pons and a number of other researchers who found positive results remained convinced of their findings.

The Times called it a circus the same day, and the Boston Herald attacked cold fusion the following day. On 1 May the American Physical Society held a session on cold fusion in Baltimore, including many reports of experiments that failed to produce evidence of cold fusion.

At the end of the session, eight of the nine leading speakers stated that they considered the initial Fleischmann and Pons claim dead, with the ninth, Johann Rafelski , abstaining.

Koonin of Caltech called the Utah report a result of " the incompetence and delusion of Pons and Fleischmann, " which was met with a standing ovation.

Morrison , a physicist representing CERN , was the first to call the episode an example of pathological science. On 4 May, due to all this new criticism, the meetings with various representatives from Washington were cancelled.

In July and November , Nature published papers critical of cold fusion claims. The United States Department of Energy organized a special panel to review cold fusion theory and research.

Nuclear fusion of the type postulated would be inconsistent with current understanding and, if verified, would require established conjecture, perhaps even theory itself, to be extended in an unexpected way.

The panel was against special funding for cold fusion research, but supported modest funding of "focused experiments within the general funding system".

In March Michael H. Salamon, a physicist from the University of Utah , and nine co-authors reported negative results. The lawyer later apologized; Fleischmann defended the threat as a legitimate reaction to alleged bias displayed by cold-fusion critics.

On 30 June the National Cold Fusion Institute closed after it ran out of funds; [71] it found no excess heat, and its reports of tritium production were met with indifference.

Mostly in the s, several books were published that were critical of cold fusion research methods and the conduct of cold fusion researchers.

A review by a cold fusion proponent had calculated "about scientists" were still conducting research. These small but committed groups of cold fusion researchers have continued to conduct experiments using Fleischmann and Pons electrolysis setups in spite of the rejection by the mainstream community.

A group of scientists at well-known research labs e. Their reported conclusion: no cold fusion. Cold fusion research continues today [ when?

The researchers who continue acknowledge that the flaws in the original announcement are the main cause of the subject's marginalization, and they complain of a chronic lack of funding [85] and no possibilities of getting their work published in the highest impact journals.

A pariah field, cast out by the scientific establishment. Between cold fusion and respectable science there is virtually no communication at all.

Cold fusion papers are almost never published in refereed scientific journals, with the result that those works don't receive the normal critical scrutiny that science requires.

On the other hand, because the Cold-Fusioners see themselves as a community under siege, there is little internal criticism.

Experiments and theories tend to be accepted at face value, for fear of providing even more fuel for external critics, if anyone outside the group was bothering to listen.

In these circumstances, crackpots flourish, making matters worse for those who believe that there is serious science going on here.

In August , the U. Hagelstein , [91] : 3 and the publication of many new papers, including the Italian ENEA and other researchers in the International Cold Fusion Conference, [92] and a two-volume book by U.

The report was released in The reviewers were "split approximately evenly" on whether the experiments had produced energy in the form of heat, but "most reviewers, even those who accepted the evidence for excess power production, 'stated that the effects are not repeatable, the magnitude of the effect has not increased in over a decade of work, and that many of the reported experiments were not well documented.

While significant progress has been made in the sophistication of calorimeters since the review of this subject in , the conclusions reached by the reviewers today are similar to those found in the review.

The current reviewers identified a number of basic science research areas that could be helpful in resolving some of the controversies in the field, two of which were: 1 material science aspects of deuterated metals using modern characterization techniques, and 2 the study of particles reportedly emitted from deuterated foils using state-of-the-art apparatus and methods.

The reviewers believed that this field would benefit from the peer-review processes associated with proposal submission to agencies and paper submission to archival journals.

Cold fusion researchers placed a "rosier spin" [93] on the report, noting that they were finally being treated like normal scientists, and that the report had increased interest in the field and caused "a huge upswing in interest in funding cold fusion research.

The grant was intended to support research into the interactions of hydrogen with palladium, nickel or platinum under extreme conditions.

Hubler, a nuclear physicist who worked for the Naval Research Laboratory for 40 years, was named director. He claims that the new experiment has already seen "neutron emissions at similar levels to the observation".

Since the Fleischmann and Pons announcement, the Italian national agency for new technologies, energy and sustainable economic development ENEA has funded Franco Scaramuzzi's research into whether excess heat can be measured from metals loaded with deuterium gas.

In —, the ENEA started a research program which claimed to have found excess power of up to percent, and in , ENEA hosted the 15th cold fusion conference.

We can't find any reason to propose more money for the coming year or for the future. In the s India stopped its research in cold fusion at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre because of the lack of consensus among mainstream scientists and the US denunciation of the research.

Electrolysis cells can be either open cell or closed cell. In open cell systems, the electrolysis products, which are gaseous, are allowed to leave the cell.

In closed cell experiments, the products are captured, for example by catalytically recombining the products in a separate part of the experimental system.

These experiments generally strive for a steady state condition, with the electrolyte being replaced periodically. There are also "heat-after-death" experiments, where the evolution of heat is monitored after the electric current is turned off.

The most basic setup of a cold fusion cell consists of two electrodes submerged in a solution containing palladium and heavy water.

The electrodes are then connected to a power source to transmit electricity from one electrode to the other through the solution. The Fleischmann and Pons early findings regarding helium, neutron radiation and tritium were never replicated satisfactorily, and its levels were too low for the claimed heat production and inconsistent with each other.

An excess heat observation is based on an energy balance. Various sources of energy input and output are continuously measured. Under normal conditions, the energy input can be matched to the energy output to within experimental error.

In experiments such as those run by Fleischmann and Pons, an electrolysis cell operating steadily at one temperature transitions to operating at a higher temperature with no increase in applied current.

Unable to produce excess heat or neutrons, and with positive experiments being plagued by errors and giving disparate results, most researchers declared that heat production was not a real effect and ceased working on the experiments.

Known instances of nuclear reactions, aside from producing energy, also produce nucleons and particles on readily observable ballistic trajectories.

In support of their claim that nuclear reactions took place in their electrolytic cells, Fleischmann and Pons reported a neutron flux of 4, neutrons per second, as well as detection of tritium.

The classical branching ratio for previously known fusion reactions that produce tritium would predict, with 1 watt of power, the production of 10 12 neutrons per second, levels that would have been fatal to the researchers.

Several medium and heavy elements like calcium, titanium, chromium, manganese, iron, cobalt, copper and zinc have been reported as detected by several researchers, like Tadahiko Mizuno or George Miley.

The report presented to the United States Department of Energy DOE in indicated that deuterium-loaded foils could be used to detect fusion reaction products and, although the reviewers found the evidence presented to them as inconclusive, they indicated that those experiments did not use state-of-the-art techniques.

In response to doubts about the lack of nuclear products, cold fusion researchers have tried to capture and measure nuclear products correlated with excess heat.

In the report presented to the DOE in , the reviewers' opinion was divided on the evidence for 4 He; with the most negative reviews concluding that although the amounts detected were above background levels, they were very close to them and therefore could be caused by contamination from air.

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